Description

The World Health Organization recently proposed the inclusion of brominated congeners in addition to chlorinated congeners when computing the toxic equivalency (TEQ) of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) in assessments of human health risks. In the present study, 12 polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and

The World Health Organization recently proposed the inclusion of brominated congeners in addition to chlorinated congeners when computing the toxic equivalency (TEQ) of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) in assessments of human health risks. In the present study, 12 polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs) were analyzed by gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry in the composited, archived biosolids that were collected in 32 U.S. states and the District of Columbia from 94 wastewater treatment plants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in its 2001 national sewage sludge survey. Two PBDDs and five PBDFs were detected in the biosolids composites at varying frequencies (40–100%) with a total mean concentration of 10,000 ng/kg dry weight (range: 630–42,800), of which 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-hepta-BDF constituted about 95% by mass. Relative to commercial polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) formulations, the ratio of PBDD/Fs to PBDEs in biosolids was 55-times higher (∼0.002% vs ∼0.11%), which indicates potential PBDE transformation or possibly additional sources of PBDD/Fs in the environment. The TEQ contribution of PBDD/Fs was estimated at 162 ng/kg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) (range: 15–672), which is equivalent to 75% (range: 12–96%) of the total TEQ in biosolids. The TEQ of DLCs released annually to U.S. soils as a result of the land application of biosolids was estimated at 720 g (range: 530–1600 g). Among all known DLCs determined in biosolids, brominated analogs contributed 370% more TEQ than did chlorinated congeners, which indicates the need to include brominated DLCs in the exposure and risk assessment of land-applied biosolids.

Details

Contributors
Date Created
2014-09-16
Collections this item is in
Identifier
  • Digital object identifier: 10.1021/es503110j
  • Identifier Type
    International standard serial number
    Identifier Value
    0013-936X
  • Identifier Type
    International standard serial number
    Identifier Value
    1520-5851
Note
  • This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, copyright American Chemical Society, after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final published work, see http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es503110j, opens in a new window

Citation and reuse

Cite this item

This is a suggested citation. Consult the appropriate style guide for specific citation guidelines.

Venkatesan, Arjun K., & Halden, Rolf U. (2014). Contribution of Polybrominated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) to the Toxic Equivalency of Dioxin-like Compounds in Archived Biosolids from the US EPA's 2001 National Sewage Sludge Survey. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, 48(18), 10843-10849. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es503110j

Machine-readable links