This growing collection consists of scholarly works authored by ASU-affiliated faculty, students, and community members, and it contains many open access articles. ASU-affiliated authors are encouraged to Share Your Work in KEEP.

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A Simple Platform for the Rapid Development of Antimicrobials

Description

Recent infectious outbreaks highlight the need for platform technologies that can be quickly deployed to develop therapeutics needed to contain the outbreak. We present a simple concept for rapid development

Recent infectious outbreaks highlight the need for platform technologies that can be quickly deployed to develop therapeutics needed to contain the outbreak. We present a simple concept for rapid development of new antimicrobials. The goal was to produce in as little as one week thousands of doses of an intervention for a new pathogen. We tested the feasibility of a system based on antimicrobial synbodies. The system involves creating an array of 100 peptides that have been selected for broad capability to bind and/or kill viruses and bacteria. The peptides are pre-screened for low cell toxicity prior to large scale synthesis. Any pathogen is then assayed on the chip to find peptides that bind or kill it. Peptides are combined in pairs as synbodies and further screened for activity and toxicity. The lead synbody can be quickly produced in large scale, with completion of the entire process in one week.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12-14

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Peptide Sequencing Directly on Solid Surfaces Using MALDI Mass Spectrometry

Description

There are an increasing variety of applications in which peptides are both synthesized and used attached to solid surfaces. This has created a need for high throughput sequence analysis directly

There are an increasing variety of applications in which peptides are both synthesized and used attached to solid surfaces. This has created a need for high throughput sequence analysis directly on surfaces. However, common sequencing approaches that can be adapted to surface bound peptides lack the throughput often needed in library-based applications. Here we describe a simple approach for sequence analysis directly on solid surfaces that is both high speed and high throughput, utilizing equipment available in most protein analysis facilities. In this approach, surface bound peptides, selectively labeled at their N-termini with a positive charge-bearing group, are subjected to controlled degradation in ammonia gas, resulting in a set of fragments differing by a single amino acid that remain spatially confined on the surface they were bound to. These fragments can then be analyzed by MALDI mass spectrometry, and the peptide sequences read directly from the resulting spectra.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12-19

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Entropy is a Simple Measure of the Antibody Profile and is an Indicator of Health Status: A Proof of Concept

Description

We have previously shown that the diversity of antibodies in an individual can be displayed on chips on which 130,000 peptides chosen from random sequence space have been synthesized. This

We have previously shown that the diversity of antibodies in an individual can be displayed on chips on which 130,000 peptides chosen from random sequence space have been synthesized. This immunosignature technology is unbiased in displaying antibody diversity relative to natural sequence space, and has been shown to have diagnostic and prognostic potential for a wide variety of diseases and vaccines. Here we show that a global measure such as Shannon’s entropy can be calculated for each immunosignature. The immune entropy was measured across a diverse set of 800 people and in 5 individuals over 3 months. The immune entropy is affected by some population characteristics and varies widely across individuals. We find that people with infections or breast cancer, generally have higher entropy values than non-diseased individuals. We propose that the immune entropy as measured from immunosignatures may be a simple method to monitor health in individuals and populations.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12-22

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Scalable high-density peptide arrays for comprehensive health monitoring

Description

There is an increasing awareness that health care must move from post-symptomatic treatment to presymptomatic intervention. An ideal system would allow regular inexpensive monitoring of health status using circulating antibodies

There is an increasing awareness that health care must move from post-symptomatic treatment to presymptomatic intervention. An ideal system would allow regular inexpensive monitoring of health status using circulating antibodies to report on health fluctuations. Recently, we demonstrated that peptide microarrays can do this through antibody signatures (immunosignatures). Unfortunately, printed microarrays are not scalable. Here we demonstrate a platform based on fabricating microarrays (~10 M peptides per slide, 330,000 peptides per assay) on silicon wafers using equipment common to semiconductor manufacturing. The potential of these microarrays for comprehensive health monitoring is verified through the simultaneous detection and classification of six different infectious diseases and six different cancers. Besides diagnostics, these high-density peptide chips have numerous other applications both in health care and elsewhere.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-09-03

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Adjuvant-Mediated Epitope Specificity and Enhanced Neutralizing Activity of Antibodies Targeting Dengue Virus Envelope Protein

Description

The heat-labile toxins (LT) produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli display adjuvant effects to coadministered antigens, leading to enhanced production of serum antibodies. Despite extensive knowledge of the adjuvant properties of

The heat-labile toxins (LT) produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli display adjuvant effects to coadministered antigens, leading to enhanced production of serum antibodies. Despite extensive knowledge of the adjuvant properties of LT derivatives, including in vitro-generated non-toxic mutant forms, little is known about the capacity of these adjuvants to modulate the epitope specificity of antibodies directed against antigens. This study characterizes the role of LT and its non-toxic B subunit (LTB) in the modulation of antibody responses to a coadministered antigen, the dengue virus (DENV) envelope glycoprotein domain III (EDIII), which binds to surface receptors and mediates virus entry into host cells. In contrast to non-adjuvanted or alum-adjuvanted formulations, antibodies induced in mice immunized with LT or LTB showed enhanced virus-neutralization effects that were not ascribed to a subclass shift or antigen affinity. Nonetheless, immunosignature analyses revealed that purified LT-adjuvanted EDIII-specific antibodies display distinct epitope-binding patterns with regard to antibodies raised in mice immunized with EDIII or the alum-adjuvanted vaccine. Notably, the analyses led to the identification of a specific EDIII epitope located in the EF to FG loop, which is involved in the entry of DENV into eukaryotic cells. The present results demonstrate that LT and LTB modulate the epitope specificity of antibodies generated after immunization with coadministered antigens that, in the case of EDIII, was associated with the induction of neutralizing antibody responses. These results open perspectives for the more rational development of vaccines with enhanced protective effects against DENV infections.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-09-25

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A Technology for Developing Synbodies with Antibacterial Activity

Description

The rise in antibiotic resistance has led to an increased research focus on discovery of new antibacterial candidates. While broad-spectrum antibiotics are widely pursued, there is evidence that resistance arises

The rise in antibiotic resistance has led to an increased research focus on discovery of new antibacterial candidates. While broad-spectrum antibiotics are widely pursued, there is evidence that resistance arises in part from the wide spread use of these antibiotics. Our group has developed a system to produce protein affinity agents, called synbodies, which have high affinity and specificity for their target. In this report, we describe the adaptation of this system to produce new antibacterial candidates towards a target bacterium. The system functions by screening target bacteria against an array of 10,000 random sequence peptides and, using a combination of membrane labeling and intracellular dyes, we identified peptides with target specific binding or killing functions. Binding and lytic peptides were identified in this manner and in vitro tests confirmed the activity of the lead peptides. A peptide with antibacterial activity was linked to a peptide specifically binding Staphylococcus aureus to create a synbody with increased antibacterial activity. Subsequent tests showed that this peptide could block S. aureus induced killing of HEK293 cells in a co-culture experiment. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using the synbody system to discover new antibacterial candidate agents.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-01-23

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Statistical methods for analyzing immunosignatures

Description

Background
Immunosignaturing is a new peptide microarray based technology for profiling of humoral immune responses. Despite new challenges, immunosignaturing gives us the opportunity to explore new and fundamentally different research

Background
Immunosignaturing is a new peptide microarray based technology for profiling of humoral immune responses. Despite new challenges, immunosignaturing gives us the opportunity to explore new and fundamentally different research questions. In addition to classifying samples based on disease status, the complex patterns and latent factors underlying immunosignatures, which we attempt to model, may have a diverse range of applications.
Methods
We investigate the utility of a number of statistical methods to determine model performance and address challenges inherent in analyzing immunosignatures. Some of these methods include exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, classical significance testing, structural equation and mixture modeling.
Results
We demonstrate an ability to classify samples based on disease status and show that immunosignaturing is a very promising technology for screening and presymptomatic screening of disease. In addition, we are able to model complex patterns and latent factors underlying immunosignatures. These latent factors may serve as biomarkers for disease and may play a key role in a bioinformatic method for antibody discovery.
Conclusion
Based on this research, we lay out an analytic framework illustrating how immunosignatures may be useful as a general method for screening and presymptomatic screening of disease as well as antibody discovery.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011-08-19

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Novel immune-modulator identified by a rapid, functional screen of the parapoxvirus ovis (Orf virus) genome

Description

Background
The success of new sequencing technologies and informatic methods for identifying genes has made establishing gene product function a critical rate limiting step in progressing the molecular sciences. We

Background
The success of new sequencing technologies and informatic methods for identifying genes has made establishing gene product function a critical rate limiting step in progressing the molecular sciences. We present a method to functionally mine genomes for useful activities in vivo, using an unusual property of a member of the poxvirus family to demonstrate this screening approach.
Results
The genome of Parapoxvirus ovis (Orf virus) was sequenced, annotated, and then used to PCR-amplify its open-reading-frames. Employing a cloning-independent protocol, a viral expression-library was rapidly built and arrayed into sub-library pools. These were directly delivered into mice as expressible cassettes and assayed for an immune-modulating activity associated with parapoxvirus infection. The product of the B2L gene, a homolog of vaccinia F13L, was identified as the factor eliciting immune cell accumulation at sites of skin inoculation. Administration of purified B2 protein also elicited immune cell accumulation activity, and additionally was found to serve as an adjuvant for antigen-specific responses. Co-delivery of the B2L gene with an influenza gene-vaccine significantly improved protection in mice. Furthermore, delivery of the B2L expression construct, without antigen, non-specifically reduced tumor growth in murine models of cancer.
Conclusion
A streamlined, functional approach to genome-wide screening of a biological activity in vivo is presented. Its application to screening in mice for an immune activity elicited by the pathogen genome of Parapoxvirus ovis yielded a novel immunomodulator. In this inverted discovery method, it was possible to identify the adjuvant responsible for a function of interest prior to a mechanistic study of the adjuvant. The non-specific immune activity of this modulator, B2, is similar to that associated with administration of inactivated particles to a host or to a live viral infection. Administration of B2 may provide the opportunity to significantly impact host immunity while being itself only weakly recognized. The functional genomics method used to pinpoint B2 within an ORFeome may be more broadly applicable to screening for other biological activities in an animal.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012-01-13

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A General Method to Discover Epitopes from Sera

Description

Antigen-antibody complexes are central players in an effective immune response. However, finding those interactions relevant to a particular disease state can be arduous. Nonetheless many paths to discovery have been

Antigen-antibody complexes are central players in an effective immune response. However, finding those interactions relevant to a particular disease state can be arduous. Nonetheless many paths to discovery have been explored since deciphering these interactions can greatly facilitate the development of new diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. In silico B cell epitope mapping approaches have been widely pursued, though success has not been consistent. Antibody mixtures in immune sera have been used as handles for biologically relevant antigens, but these and other experimental approaches have proven resource intensive and time consuming. In addition, these methods are often tailored to individual diseases or a specific proteome, rather than providing a universal platform. Most of these methods are not able to identify the specific antibody’s epitopes from unknown antigens, such as un-annotated neo antigens in cancer. Alternatively, a peptide library comprised of sequences unrestricted by naturally-found protein space provides for a universal search for mimotopes of an antibody’s epitope. Here we present the utility of such a non-natural random sequence library of 10,000 peptides physically addressed on a microarray for mimotope discovery without sequence information of the specific antigen. The peptide arrays were probed with serum from an antigen-immunized rabbit, or alternatively probed with serum pre-absorbed with the same immunizing antigen. With this positive and negative screening scheme, we identified the library-peptides as the mimotopes of the antigen. The unique library peptides were successfully used to isolate antigen-specific antibodies from complete immune serum. Sequence analysis of these peptides revealed the epitopes in the immunized antigen. We present this method as an inexpensive, efficient method for identifying mimotopes of any antibody’s targets. These mimotopes should be useful in defining both components of the antigen-antibody complex.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-06-14

The immunosignature of canine lymphoma: characterization and diagnostic application

Description

Background
Cancer diagnosis in both dogs and humans is complicated by the lack of a non-invasive diagnostic test. To meet this clinical need, we apply the recently developed immunosignature assay

Background
Cancer diagnosis in both dogs and humans is complicated by the lack of a non-invasive diagnostic test. To meet this clinical need, we apply the recently developed immunosignature assay to spontaneous canine lymphoma as clinical proof-of-concept. Here we evaluate the immunosignature as a diagnostic for spontaneous canine lymphoma at both at initial diagnosis and evaluating the disease free interval following treatment.
Methods
Sera from dogs with confirmed lymphoma (B cell n = 38, T cell n = 11) and clinically normal dogs (n = 39) were analyzed. Serum antibody responses were characterized by analyzing the binding pattern, or immunosignature, of serum antibodies on a non-natural sequence peptide microarray. Peptides were selected and tested for the ability to distinguish healthy dogs from those with lymphoma and to distinguish lymphoma subtypes based on immunophenotype. The immunosignature of dogs with lymphoma were evaluated for individual signatures. Changes in the immunosignatures were evaluated following treatment and eventual relapse.
Results
Despite being a clonal disease, both an individual immunosignature and a generalized lymphoma immunosignature were observed in each dog. The general lymphoma immunosignature identified in the initial set of dogs (n = 32) was able to predict disease status in an independent set of dogs (n = 42, 97% accuracy). A separate immunosignature was able to distinguish the lymphoma based on immunophenotype (n = 25, 88% accuracy). The individual immunosignature was capable of confirming remission three months following diagnosis. Immunosignature at diagnosis was able to predict which dogs with B cell lymphoma would relapse in less than 120 days (n = 33, 97% accuracy).
Conclusion
We conclude that the immunosignature can serve as a multilevel diagnostic for canine, and potentially human, lymphoma.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-09-08